At the beginning of Exodus it is Pharaoh who decides to deal “shrewdly” with the Hebrews and forces them to build his storage cities. The word in Hebrew is literally “wisely” (1:10). Later, it is Pharaoh who summons his “wise men” to perform enchantments to counter Moses and Aaron (7:11). Of course Yahweh confounds the wisdom of Pharaoh and all of his wise men and delivers Israel out of bondage. Numerous people have pointed out that Israel is changing masters/lords: they go from serving Pharaoh to serving Yahweh, they go from building Pharaoh’s cities to building Yahweh’s house. One of the other striking contrasts is between the wisdom of Pharaoh and the wisdom of Yahweh. Throughout the tabernacle building narratives (31:1-6, and chapters 35-38), God gives “wisdom” to the craftsmen and builders of the tabernacle. In the NKJV, the word “gifted artisan/s” is literally “wise hearted.” The wisdom of Pharaoh sends Hebrew slaves to build his cities as a not-so-cleverly disguised population control measure, whereas Yahweh’s wisdom is the Spirit of freedom given that they might build Yahweh’s house and have life.